The origin and spread of the family name Kidd in Northwest Yorkshire, England, 1500 to 1800
Most Kidds beween 1500 and 1800 lived in Giggleswick Parish, next comes Linton-in-Craven then Thornton-in-Lonsdale
1377 The Poll Tax of Craven
To find an ancestors can be more difficult than you think. Our Richard Kidd got married in Kildwick in 1735 but he came from somewhere else in Craven. This page is the results of my search for him. I think I may have found your ancestors along the way!
In 1377 King Richard II ordered taxes collected from all people over sixteen. In Yorkshire the collectors found only five Kidd households in Craven, two in the Wapentake of Ewecross and three in Staincliffe West but none at all in Staincliffe East:
Our five lads were all married and paid fourpence tax: the lowest rate levied on labourers. Ordinary people did not have second names back then so the tax collectors distinguished them by their occupation.
Thomas Kyd' of Ingleton
Willelmus Kyd' of Clapham
Willelmus Kyd' of Giggleswick
Simon Kyd' of Settle
Robert Kyder of Gisburn
Kyd' is an abreviation of Kider or Kidner. These five lads were kyders: supplier of wood as fuel (see footnote) Since the name is an occupation the five are probably not genetically related. This is confirmed by Y-DNA results showing a number of distinct lines. See Family Tree DNA
Craven is a great valley that cuts through the mountainous "spine" of England. The Domesday Book defined it as lengthier district than it is now for it included westerly parts now in Lancashire. The church also considers Craven to be much larger.
In 1377 only five Kyd' households were recorded in the whole of Craven.
There were two Kidds in Lancashire but they lived far from here, about 40mi/70km South West: Willelmus Kyd of Scarisbrick near Southport and Nicholaus Kydde of Cuerdley near Warrington. One theory is that such came from Ireland.
Later Historical records
DEANERY OF CRAVEN
1522-47 The Lay Subsidies of the Deanery of Craven includes eight Kidds: John, Robert, William, Roger, Thomas, Ralph, Richard and Christopher Kidd. In the collection of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Leeds
A 14th century marriage ceremony
1672 Hearth Tax of Craven
The next census of England started in 1662 when Parliament ordered taxes to support King Charles II. These were collected twice a year from everybody with a fireplace. It was most unpopular and was repealed in 1689. The 20th register has been transcribed by Roehampton University, that is for 1672. Click here to download
By now the scribes had decided to spell the name the modern way. In Craven the name had spread not more than a few miles, except for four adventurers: John went far north to Kirkby Stephen; Thomas east to Ripon and another to near Harrogate; another John southwest to near Clitheroe and Robert far south near Wakefield (see map below)
Kidds Hearths of northwest Yorkshire
WAPENTAKES OF STAINCLIFFE AND EWECROSS
Widow Kidd of Langcliffe
John, and another John Kidd of Settle
Thomas Kidd of Settle
Robert Kidd of Settle
Thomas Kidd of Long Preston
John Kidd of Bashall
MALHAM, AIREDALE Abraham Kidd of Kirkby Malham
Cuthbert Kidd of Kirkby Malham
John Kidd of Arncliffe
Tho. Kidd of Kettlewell
Thomas Kidd of Grassington
William, and another William Kidd of Hebden
Robert Kidd of Hebden
Thomas Kidd of Threshfield
John Kidd of Hartlington
Thomas Kidd of Burnsall
Francis Kidd of Appletreewick
Thomas Kidd of Hetton with Bordley
Compare this 1672 map with the previous of 1377 and see how the Kidds had grown to twenty families as they moved east. This movement suggests they came from the Irish sea. Indeed Norwegian Viking settlers had come that way in the C9th. But I have not yet been able to get 1672 Lancashire records. You can check hearthtax.org.uk to see if they've got Lancashire completed yet.
There were also a few Kidds in surrounding areas:
WAPENTAKE OF CLARO Richard Kidd of Stonebeck Upper [Midlesmoor, Niddersdale]
Thomas Kidd of Kirkby Malzeard [Ripon]
Thomas Kidd of Hampsthwaite [near Harrogate]
WAPENTAKE OF ABRIGG AND MORLEY Robert Kidd of Ossett [near Wakefield, Calderdale]
WESTMORLAND Jo. Kidd 4 of Church Brough [North of Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria]
Geo. Kids 1 of Winton, Kirkby Stephen
Wm. Kidner 4 of Kendal Highgate [Kendal]
It must be empahasised that not everybody was on these tax lists. The poor were often unlisted. For example there were Kidds in Ingleton and Clapham both before and after this survey so it seems they just didn't own a hearth in 1672.
The Parish Registers 1672 to 1800
In 1538 Henry VIII's Vicar General ordered that each parish priest must keep a book of baptisms, marriages and burials. And from 1598 added that these kept in 'great decent books of parchment' and earlier records be copied-in.
However many had become illegible. And in 1643-1660 under Cromwell many books were destroyed or hidden and are now missing.
A parish is a territory under the care of one parish priest from a central parish church. It often covers the same area as the manor, under the jurisdiction of the Lord, from which the parish may have derived its existence.
In each arose a varying number of Townships some having their own "chapel of ease", meaning it was easier to get there. In early times the ceremonies of baptism, marriage and burial were only permited in the parish church but later these were performed in the Chapelries.
Parishes were modified and consolidated over time but maps can be found showing the older ones. To search for a parish on an interactive map use familysearch.org
Map of the ancent Wapentakes
Map of Arch-deanery of Craven in 2010
Political census were made on the Wapaentake system but the churches used the Deanery system. The two outlines do not coincide, and indeed have varied through the centuries noticeably with the Lancashire-Yorshire county boundary.
DEANERY OF EWECROSS
THE PARISH OF SEDBURGH
Zero Kidds registered between 1594 and 1843
THE PARISH OF THORNTON IN LONSDALE Townships: Thornton-in-Lonsdale, Burton in Lonsdale
THE PARISH OF LOW BENTHAM Townships: Ingleton, Bentham
Ingleton register starts 1607 There are 16 entries of Kidd births and deaths between 1607 and 1800.
Marriage records should be available soon
Data from ingleborougharchaeology.org.uk
1549 b William Kyde son of Oliver Kyde of Kirkby-Lonsdale
1763 b Thomas Kidd at Kirkby Lonsdale
1763 b Elizabeth Kidd at Kirkby Lonsdale
1791 b James Kidd at Kirkby Lonsdale
1790 b Ann Kidd at Kirkby Lonsdale
1859 D James Kidd of Kirkby Lonsdale
1872 D Ann Kidd of Kirkby Lonsdale
THE PARISH OF TUNSTALL
Townships: Tuntsall, Burrow with Burrow, Cantsfield, and chapelry of Leck
1627 - 1700 no Kidds at all
THE PARISH OF MELLING Domesday Book included Melling, Wrayton, Wennington, Farleton and Hornby in Craven. Townships: Melling-with-Wrayton, Wennington, Farleton, Roeburndale, Wray-with-Botton. The acient parish included Gressinham until the12th century, and Hornby and Arkholm as chapelries until 1742.
Melling parish register begins PR 1625 BT 1677. See Townships of Lancashire
1759 b Ann Kidd dau of Thomas Kidd & Elizabeth of Thurland Mill
1794 D Agnes Kidd of Melling
THE PARISH OF TATHAM Townships:
there was no township in this parish. Tatham parish church register is 1558-1812, Tatham Fells chapelry 1745-1803
1669 m Agnes Kidd & Rowland Dowson
1815 b Nanny Kidd dau of Robert Kidd, shoe maker of Stockbridge & Elizabeth
Parishes in Lancashire that used to be in Craven
We may carry on down through Lancashire to the Irish sea seeking Kidds.
In Bolton-le-Sands in 1657 Peter Lodge of Nether Kellet married Isabell Kid, dau of Thomas Kid of Fomagill Malladale in Bowland. She was the only Kidd here between 1653 and 1820.
In nearby Lancaster we find 1775 John Kid; 1766 Elizabeth Kid; 1774 John Kidd; 1803 Francis Kidd; 1807 m Elizabeth Kidd.
However further south on the coast we find evidence that many Kidds came over from Ireland. In Liverpool one Kidd is even registered as "Kidd alias Irish"
DEANERY OF BOWLAND
THE PARISH OF ARNCLIFFE Townships: Buckden, Hawkeswick, Litton, chapelry of Halton Gill. Church records 1671-1812 show 10 Kidd entries
1673 b …. Kidd son of William Kidd
1675 b Agnes Kidd dau of William Kidd
1677 b Elizabeth Kidd dau of William Kidd
1671 b Ann Kidd dau of William Kidd
1679 b William Kidd son of William Kidd
1680 b John Kidd son of William Kidd
1683 m Henrie Kidd & Margaret Preston
1733 m William Kidd & Jane Parkinson
1763 m Margaret Kid & Thos. Tenant
1765 b Pearson Kidd son of Alice Kidd, unmarried
THE PARISH OF GIGGLESWICK Townships: Settle, Giggleswick, Langcliffe, Stainforth, Rathmell.
1440kiddgenealogy.net mentions a will of John Kidd of Giggleswick 1513 Battle of Flodden, against invading Scotland, Lord Clifford took with him sixty men from Giggleswick parish. The muster-roll includes “Robert Kydd, a bowe” (longbow) 75 Kidd entries between 1559 and 1800
The records are gappy as there are many periods of missing registers.
Data from freepages.genealogy.rootswebancestry.com 1685 John Kidd junior became an Oversee of Settle: looked after the paupers of the township and paid for the apprenticeship of paupers’ children
1676-85 Thomas Kidd was a Constable of Settle. In 1710 a Thomas Kidd was a brewer and seller of beer in a Public Ale House in Settle.
QUAKERS OF SETTLE The Society of Friends were significant here but in 1670 Thomas Kidd informed against them. Those taken to trial included John Kidd of Upper Settle fined "for atending a meeting 15 shillings for which the officers took 2 coats and covercloth, part of an hide of leather, and one paire of shooes. In 1681 John refuses to pay his tithes so "had one pigg taken from him by a bayliffe worth 3s. 8d”. Undeterred John opened his home, 16-17 Albert St, for quaker meetings. It was occupied for several generations by the family Kidd. Starting in 1578 the Quakers kept their own parish records. Until 1754 they legaly had to get married in Anglican churches, but their births and deaths only appear in the Quaker regsiter, for example:
1662 b Richard Kidd
1680 D John Kidd
1683 D Richard Kidd
1687 b Agnes Kidd
1689 b Richard Kidd, son of William Kidd
1703 D William Kidd
1762 D Agnes Kidd
1790 D John Kidd
THE PARISH OF SLAIDBURN IN BOWLAND Townships: Slaidburn, Dunsop Bridge, Easington, Bowland Forest, Newton.
Register covers 1631-1812
There were no Kidd entries in Slaidburn 1631-1812
THE PARISH OF LONG PRESTON Townships: Long Preston, Wigglesworth, Hellifield, Halton West, Register burials started 1589, baptisms in 1716, marriages in 1735
1744 b Henry to Ann and Thomas Kidd, labourer of Wigglesworth
1761 b John son of Ann and John Kidd of Halton
1769 m Thomas Kidd, farmer of Giggleswick and Alice Howson otp
1773 m Henry Kid, labourer otp and Mary Baldwin otp
1794 m William Kidd cotton weaver otp and Mary Riley otp
1794 b Ann dau of Mary and William Kidd
1796 b Jenney dau of Mary and William Kidd
1798 b John son of Mary and William Kidd
THE PARISH OF GISBURN Townships: Gisburn, Gisburn Forest, Paythorne, Bolton, Rimington, Swinden, Horton Registers runs from 1561 to 1812
1598 m Margreta Kidd & Johannes Aierton de Beeld
1738 b John Kid son of Thomas Kid otp
1740 b Abarham Kid son of Thomas Kid otp
1741 b Thomasin Kid dau of Thomas Kid otp
1764 b Marjery Kid dau John Kid otp
THE PARISH OF BOLTON-BY-BOWLAND Townships: Bolton by Bolland, Holden.
Only one Kid entry between 1558 and 1812
1774 b Alice Kid dau of John Kid
THE PARISH OF GREAT MITTON TOWNSHIPS: Mitton, Bashall, West Bradford. CHAPELRIES: Waddington, Grindleton. Despite the hearth tax recording a John Kidd at Bashall Eaves in 1672, the registers record no Kidd born married or died there
There were no Kidd entries in Waddington register1599-1812
GRINDLETON register only exists from 1744 and no transcripts are known Genuki
No data is available before 1744 and no transcript for after
During the 18th century Grindleton became a centre for weaving but due to the industrial revolution, between 1820 and 1840, the number of handloom weavers here dropped from 200 to nil, all going for work in the mill towns.
THE PARISH OF WHITEWELL
There were no Kidd entries in this register 1861-1887
THE PARISH OF SAWLEY
There were no Kidd entries in this register
THE PARISH OF HORTON IN GISBURN
There were no Kidd entries in this register1773-1837
THE PARISH OF KETTLEWELL Townships: Kettlewell, Starbotton Church records 1713-1812 show 19 Kidd entries
1722 m Elizabeth Kidd & John Waterhouse
1728 m Ann Kidd & Thomas Duffield
1734 b Jane Kidd dau of Tho. Kidd
1737 b Wm. Kidd son of Tho. Kidd
1738 b John Kidd son of Thos. Kidd
1741 b Tho. Kidd son of Tho. Kidd
1750 b Thos. Kidd son of Thos. Kidd
1752 b Jona. Kidd son of Thos. Kidd
1755 b Isabell Kidd dau of Tho. Kidd
1760 b William Kidd son of Ann Kidd, unmarried
1760 m John Kidd &Mary Calvert
1761 b Thomas Kid son of John Kid
1761 m Sarah Kidd & James Stringer
1763 b Jane Kidd dau of John Kidd
1766 b Ann Kidd dau of Ann Kidd, unmarried
1767 b John Kid son of John Kid
1769 b Mary Kid dau of John Kid
1773 m Mary Kidd & Joseph Atkinson
1786 m Mary Kidd & Thomass Lord
THE PARISH OF LINTON IN CRAVEN Townships:Linton, Grassington, Hebden, Threshfield Register starts 1532
There are 204 Kidd entries in Linton register before 1800 Data from Yorkshire Parish Register Society, and from Archive.org
THE PARISH OF BURNSALL-IN-CRAVEN Townships: Burnsall, Conistone-with-Kilnsey, Hetton-with-Bordley, Cracow, Rylstone, Hartlington, Appletreewick The Burnsall parish
register did not begins until 1697, however from other sources:
1543 b Anthony Kidd of Burnsall [wharfegen.org.uk]
In 1579 the Rector Wm Brogden's niece was Mrs. Sampson Kidd
Pavers Marriage Licences at the British Museum include:
1607 Mabel Banks of Burnsall to marry Richard Kidd of Leeds at either parish
1614 Michael Kidd of Burnsall to marry Jane Grange of Ripo,n at Ripon
In 1632 Anthony Kidd was a churchwarden
There are 25 Kidd entries in the Burnsall register before 1786 Data from archive.org/details/parishregisterof03burn
The Chapelry of Conistone in Burnsall parish
There are 16 Kidd entries in Conistone register before 1812 Data from transcript by WJ Stavert 1894Google Books
THE PARISH OF GARGRAVE Townships: Gargrave, Cold Coniston, Bank Newton, Flasby with Winterburn This register begins in 1558There are 29 Kidd entries in Gargrave register before 1800 Data from Google Books
THE PARISH OF SKIPTON
Townships: Skipton, Bolton Abbey, Beamsley, Embsay-with-Eastby, Draughton, Stirton-with-Thorlby, Halton East, Barden, Hazelwood-with-Storiths. Register starts 1592, but three parts are lost
There are 20 Kidd entries in Skipton register before 1800
Data from Google Books and from cravenindexes.co.uk
THE PARISH OF BROUGHTON WITH ELSLACK Register only covers 1741-1812
There were no Kidd entries 1741-1812
THE PARISH OF MARTON IN CRAVEN Register only covers 1724-1812
There were no Kidd entries in Marton 1724-1812
THE PARISH OF CARLETON IN CRAVEN Townships: Carlton, Lothersdale
There were no Kidd entries
THE PARISH OF BARNOLDSWICK (now in Lancashire) Townships: Barnoldswick, Earby. Register covers 1588-1747
There were no Kidd entries 1588-1747
THE PARISH OF THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN Townships: Thornton, Earby, Kelbrook.
No Kidds listed in this parish,
however the register does not start untill 1735
Deanery of Skipton parishes, East Craven
1672 Hearth Tax of East Yorkshire
In the Hearth Tax records of 1672 the name was spelled towards the east with only one D. This may be just the idosyncracy of the scribes or it may signify a different family line.
* Red star = KIDD with two Ds.
* Purple star = Kid with one D
Jo. Kid of Langbargh E. Divn, Marske [Redcar nr Middlesborough]
Wm. Kid of Newby Wiske, Gilling East [Northalerton]
Rd. Kid of Thornton Rust, Hang West [between Hawes and Leyburn]
Rt. Kid of Newton with Ruswick, Hang East [east of Leyburn] Tho. Kid of Carlton Husthwaite, Birdforth [Thirsk]
Wm. Kid of Hutton Sessay, Allerton Shire [Thirsk]
Geo. Kid of Kirby Moorside, Ryedale [N Yorks Moors National Park]
Gilbert Kid of Kirby Moorside
Margt. Kid of Kirby Moorside
Rt. Kid of Kirby Moorside
Math. Kid of Hemsley, Ryedale
Math. Kid of Hemsley
Antho. Kidd of Lockton, Pickering Lythe
Hen. Kid of Farmanby, Pickering Lythe
Alice Kid of Hovingham [Malton]
DEANERY OF SOUTH CRAVEN
THE PARISH OF KILDWICK Townships: Kildwick, Silsden, Steeton, Holden, Farnhill, Eastburn, Bradley, Cowling, Cononley, Glusburn, and Sutton-in-Airedale. There are 32 Kidd entries in Kildwick register before 1800
Data from cravenindexes.co.uk
THE PARISH OF KEIGHLEY Townships: Keighley, Steeton
There were no Kidd entries in Keighley until 1842
THE PARISH OF BINGLEY Townships: Bingley.
There were no Kidd entries in Bingley until 1836
Nearby Parishes in Wharfedale
THE PARISH OF ADDINGHAM Townships: Addingham, Beamsley. Parish records from 1612 show 6 Kidd entries
1789 b Robert Midgley son of Eleanor Kidd and John Midgley
1791 b Eleanor Midgley dau of Eleanor Kidd and John Midgley
1809 b Robert Kidd Hargrove son of Wm. Hargrove and Ann Kidd
1811 b Thomas Kidd son of Tho. Kidd and Mary Jennings
1812 b James Kidd son of James Kidd and Hannah Steel
1812 b Margaret Kidd dau of John Kidd and Eliz. Wadsworth
THE PARISH OF ILKLEY Townships: Ilkley, Middleton, Nesfield with Langbar. Parish records 1597-1812 show 10 Kidd entries
1680 b Johannes Kidd son of Jane Kidd, unmarried
1739 b James Kid son of Thomas Kid
1742 m John Kidd & Martha Hudson
1744 b Betty Kidd dau of James Kidd
1764 b William Kidd son of James Kidd
1765 b Mary Kidd dau of James Kidd
1769 b James Kidd son of James Kidd
1771 b Thomas Kidd son of James Kidd
1780 m Mary Kidd & George Anderson
1799 m Elizabeth Kidd & John Rushworth
The Deanery of South Craven is at its south-east end.
Addingham and Ikley are not really in it but they did house some Kidds.
THE FIRST MODERN CENSUS
The first modern census was
in 1837. The Kidds of Yorkshire really stand out.
The scribes of the Poll Tax wrote their name Kyd' using an apostraphe as an abbreviation; a common scribal practice though randomly applied. But what were they abbreviating? That apostraphe was used on most occupational descriptions eg., shephyrder, miller, nayler, see Medieval_Occupations.pdf
North West Craven was settled by Norwegian Viking c900 AD via Northern Ireland and the Irish Sea, so this region's words often have roots in Old Norse. A kidde was a bundles of twigs used as fuel whilst still bound together, its name comes from Old Norse kyndill meaning a torch (also root of candle and kindle). A person who made a kidde out of kindling was called a kider, or kidner, or in the saxon areas a kidman. But why did not all the other towns in Craven have a Kyder? Did the Ingleton Clapham Giggleswick and Settle have a demand for firewood on an industrial scale? I believe it was Lime burning.
From prehistory there was an industry in the Dales making quick-lime to sell, via packhorses, for cement, plaster, whitewash, soap and agriculture. Ingleton to Settle lie along the Craven Fault , a great cliff of limestone. Alater kilner wrote “A natural limestone ridge or vein of the appropriate stone type near the surface for quarrying first had to be located, as well as large quantities of local wood for fuel ... Firing a kiln is a very technical job. Really it takes an expert to fire a kiln.”[wabashanderiecanal.org]
I deduce our Kyds were expert kindlers and firers. For example in Clapham I think Willelmus Kyd' and Willelmus Lemyng' (whose name even sounds like lime) ran an industrial lime kiln. And part of Clapham's Bank Woods is still named Lime Kiln Plantation !
Wood was the only source of heating in most areas. Wood has to be trimmed for the fireplace, to fit the width of the hearth.
The majority of wood burned was not in logs but in the form of bundles of sticks and twigs called a "fagot" in French-speaking areas and a "kidde" in Norse speech.
Jean-François Millet (1814–1875) painted workers at this occupation. He shows it as a family buiness, collecting brushwood being the first part of it. But the trimming of it into even lengths and tying it into bundles is the root of our name.
"Kindling" is what you made "kidde" out of, just as flooring is what you make floors out of.